Publications by National/ Regional ELT Management Organisations:
United Kingdom End of waste criteria for the production and use of tyre-derived rubber materials- Quality Protocol
State of Knowledge Report on Rubber Modified Asphalt- US Tires
The State of Knowledge report provides an up-to-date review of Rubber Modified Asphalt, including its historical development and use, production methods, field performance, economics, safety, driver comfort, environmental impact, and sustainability benefits
National/ Regional ELT Management Organisation Articles:
AECOM- End of Life Tyre Rubber: Assessment of Waste Framework Directive End-of Waste Criteria:
The Waste Framework Directive empowers the European Commission to clarify when a waste that has undergone a recovery, including recycling, operation obtains end-of-waste (EoW) status. The Commission is intending to develop 'end-of-waste criteria' that certain waste types would have to fulfil to cease to be waste.
https://www.euric-aisbl.eu/position-papers/download/1662/562/32 published October 2021
End-of-Life Tires: A Framework for Effective Management Systems Prepared by the WBCSD Tire Industry Project
World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) investigates the state of end-of-life tire (ELT) management in different parts of the world, and to better understand different stakeholders’ roles in the management process.
https://docs.wbcsd.org/2010/10/AFrameworkForEffectiveManagementSystems.pdf published June 2010
World Business Council for Sustainable Development Managing end of Life tyres
The WBCSD has put together this overview to explain what ELTs are, what environmental impacts they can have, and what has been and can be done to ensure they are properly managed.
https://docs.wbcsd.org/2018/02/TIP/End_of_Life_Tires-Full-Report.pdf published February 2018
WBCSD- Global ELT Management – A global state of knowledge on regulation, management systems, impacts of recovery and technologies
This study provides an update to the State of Knowledge (SOK) in a selection of countries. Also delves deeper into aspects such as studies conducted on the impacts of recovery methods, products, applications on human health and the environment, and research and development of advanced ELT recovery technologies.
Investigation of the use of reclaimed asphalt pavement from crumb rubber modified asphalt – Stage 1 Interim Report
The objective of the first stage of the project is to demonstrate and quantify the effects of using Crumb Rubber Modifier-Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (CRM-RAP) in producing asphalt in order to enable and encourage the use of a highly sustainable product with the local asphalt industry in Australia
http://cdn-warrip.s3.amazonaws.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/WARRIP-2019-001_Investigation-of-the-use-of-RAP-from-CRM-Asphalt-%E2%80%93-Stage-1-Final.pdf published June 2019
Investigation of the use of reclaimed asphalt pavement from crumb rubber modified asphalt – Stage 2
This report investigates if Crumb Rubber Modifier (CRM) asphalt can be recycled to produce Crumb Rubber Modified- Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (CRM-RAP), and to identify any barriers which may prevent this technology from being effective.
https://warrip.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/WARRIP_2019-012_CRM-RAP-Stage-2_Final.pdf Published January 2021
Ecopneus- Modified Asphalts
In many Provinces all over Italy parts of roads have been surfaced with modified asphalts, with the addition of rubber from End-of-Life tyres.
Twenty years of Rubberized Asphalt mixes in Spanish road
This article contains a summary of the most important information about all of the roadworks that have implemented recycled tyres in Spain over the last two decades.
Ecopneus Modified asphalts research and development
Article on the development of technical solutions aimed at improving road performances for what concerns their reliability, safety, and comfort for drivers.
Field trials of asphalt rubber hot mix in Virginia
The construction processes and comparison of the performance of different types of mixes containing ground tyre rubber.
https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/19377 - Virginia Transportation Research Council January 1995
The Ray- Rubber Roads
Basic overview of the benefits of adding recycled tyre rubber to the construction of pavements.
https://theray.org/tech/rubber-roads/ Published 2018
Published Journal articles on Tyre Modified Asphalt and Concrete:
Crumb Rubber Modifier in Road Asphalt Pavements: State of the Art and Statistics
This work has the intent of providing an overview of the principal processes and technologies for the use of crumb rubber in the asphalt mixture
https://www.mdpi.com/2079-6412/9/6/384/pdf Published 2019
Development of Functional Rubber-Based Impact-Absorbing Pavements for Cyclist and Pedestrian Injury Reduction
The development of the rubber-based impact-absorbing pavements (IAP) offers a possibility to rethink the design of urban pavements and address safety on roads, which constitutes a major challenge in terms of attaining more sustainable, resilient, and safe cities for cyclists and pedestrians.
https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/13/20/11283 Published October 2021
Economic and environmental analysis of crumb rubber modified asphalt
Life cycle analysis of the service life of Tyre modified asphalt compared to standard pavement with asphalt concrete, asphalt concrete for very thin layers or stone mastic asphalt wearing course to be more sustainable in some or all sustainability parameters.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S095006182201145X Published April 2022
Effect of Crumb Rubber as Coarse and Fine Aggregates on the Properties of Asphalt Concrete
This research has used crumb rubber in asphalt mixture as a part of the coarse and fine aggregate. The methodology involves the selection of the asphalt content and the percentage of rubber, which satisfies some property values (stability, range of flow, density, air void, VMA) according to many tests and some equations.
https://thescipub.com/pdf/ajeassp.2016.558.564.pdf Published June 2016
Functionalization of Crumb Rubber Surface for the Incorporation into Asphalt Layers of Reduced Stiffness
This review focuses on using physical surface treatment to modify the rubber surface characteristics for the use of abundant Crumb Rubber generated from End of Life Tyres in pavement engineering applications.
https://www.mdpi.com/2313-4321/6/1/19 Published March 2021
Impact of Chemically Treated Waste Rubber Tire Aggregates on Mechanical, Durability and Thermal Properties of Concrete
In this work, the influence of chemical treatment of rubber aggregates using sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH) and calcium hypochlorite solution [Ca(ClO)2] on fresh, mechanical, and transport properties of concrete have been studied.
https://pure.tudelft.nl/ws/files/72156016/fmats_07_00090.pdf Published April 2020
Life Cycle Assessment of Sustainable Asphalt Pavement Solutions Involving Recycled Aggregates and Polymers
The synergistic effects of several innovative and traditional asphalt mixtures for binder and base layers of asphalt pavements were analyzed from both the technical and environmental points of view.
https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/14/14/3867 Published July 2021
Life cycle assessment of two end-of-life tyre applications: artificial turfs and asphalt rubber
The use of end-of-life tyres is studied in two different applications in this life cycle assessment: as an infill layer on artificial football fields and as a binder additive in asphalt rubber pavements.
Recycled Rubber as an Aggregate Replacement in Self-Compacting Concrete—Literature Overview
An overview of fresh and hardened properties of self-compacting concrete with partially replaced fine and/or coarse aggregate with waste tire rubber.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6165371/ Published September 2018
Recycling Crumb Rubber Modified Asphalt Pavements
As a recycled material the performance of reclaimed asphalt rubber pavement (RAP) and the environmental impact thereof is the focus of this study.
https://static.tti.tamu.edu/tti.tamu.edu/documents/1333-1F.pdf Published July 1995
Recycling Tire Rubber in Asphalt Pavements: State of the Art
Information on asphalt mixtures using waste tire rubber additions as a low-cost and environmentally friendly modifier and how it improved the overall properties of asphalt pavements.
https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/12/21/9076 Published October 2020
The Impact of adding waste tire rubber on asphalt mix design
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of using the rubber of waste tires in asphalt mix design
https://staff.najah.edu/media/conference/2020/06/15/Amjad_Issa-MAT-08-28052020.pdf Edited December 2020
The Use of Recycled Tire Rubber to Modify Asphalt Binder and Mixtures
This Technical Brief provides an overview of the various processes for recycled tire rubber used as a modifier for asphalt binders and as an additive for asphalt mixtures
https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/pubs/hif14015.pdf Published September 2014
Transfer of Crumb Rubber Modified Asphalt and Sealing Technology, Queensland
The primary aim of this project was to facilitate the increased use of Crumb Rubber Modifier binders on the Queensland road network
Use of Tire Derived Products in Roadway Construction
The potential uses discussed herein include Tyre Derived Aggregate as lightweight fill, retaining wall backfill, insulation layer, drainage layer, and capillary moisture break
https://www.lrrb.org/pdf/201320.pdf Published July 2013
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