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Circular Economy Market Development

We are working on a number of research and development projects with stakeholders. Our core focus is to build sustainability and enhanced environmental outcomes for ELT. Developing end markets for recycled and recovered ELT rubber is an important part of our work. Below is a series of links to published research on enhanced uses for recycled rubber made from waste tyres. We are working on a number of research and development projects with stakeholders. 

Researching better outcomes for waste


Publications by National/ Regional ELT Management Organisations:

United Kingdom End of waste criteria for the production and use of tyre-derived rubber materials- Quality Protocol published June 2014


State of Knowledge Report on Rubber Modified Asphalt- US Tires

The State of Knowledge report provides an up-to-date review of Rubber Modified Asphalt, including its historical development and use, production methods, field performance, economics, safety, driver comfort, environmental impact, and sustainability benefits published May 2021


National/ Regional ELT Management Organisation Articles:

AECOM- End of Life Tyre Rubber: Assessment of Waste Framework Directive End-of Waste Criteria:

The Waste Framework Directive empowers the European Commission to clarify when a waste that has undergone a recovery, including recycling, operation obtains end-of-waste (EoW) status. The Commission is intending to develop 'end-of-waste criteria' that certain waste types would have to fulfil to cease to be waste. published October 2021


End-of-Life Tires: A Framework for Effective Management Systems Prepared by the WBCSD Tire Industry Project

World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) investigates the state of end-of-life tire (ELT) management in different parts of the world, and to better understand different stakeholders’ roles in the management process. published June 2010


World Business Council for Sustainable Development Managing end of Life tyres

The WBCSD has put together this overview to explain what ELTs are, what environmental impacts they can have, and what has been and can be done to ensure they are properly managed. published February 2018


WBCSD- Global ELT Management – A global state of knowledge on regulation, management systems, impacts of recovery and technologies

This study provides an update to the State of Knowledge (SOK) in a selection of countries. Also delves deeper into aspects such as studies conducted on the impacts of recovery methods, products, applications on human health and the environment, and research and development of advanced ELT recovery technologies. Published December 2019


Investigation of the use of reclaimed asphalt pavement from crumb rubber modified asphalt – Stage 1 Interim Report

The objective of the first stage of the project is to demonstrate and quantify the effects of using Crumb Rubber Modifier-Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (CRM-RAP) in producing asphalt in order to enable and encourage the use of a highly sustainable product with the local asphalt industry in Australia published June 2019

Investigation of the use of reclaimed asphalt pavement from crumb rubber modified asphalt – Stage 2

This report investigates if Crumb Rubber Modifier (CRM) asphalt can be recycled to produce Crumb Rubber Modified- Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (CRM-RAP), and to identify any barriers which may prevent this technology from being effective. Published January 2021


Ecopneus- Modified Asphalts

In many Provinces all over Italy parts of roads have been surfaced with modified asphalts, with the addition of rubber from End-of-Life tyres.

Twenty years of Rubberized Asphalt mixes in Spanish road

This article contains a summary of the most important information about all of the roadworks that have implemented recycled tyres in Spain over the last two decades.


Ecopneus Modified asphalts research and development

Article on the development of technical solutions aimed at improving road performances for what concerns their reliability, safety, and comfort for drivers.


Field trials of asphalt rubber hot mix in Virginia

The construction processes and comparison of the performance of different types of mixes containing ground tyre rubber. - Virginia Transportation Research Council January 1995


The Ray- Rubber Roads

Basic overview of the benefits of adding recycled tyre rubber to the construction of pavements. Published 2018


Published Journal articles on Tyre Modified Asphalt and Concrete:

Crumb Rubber Modifier in Road Asphalt Pavements: State of the Art and Statistics

This work has the intent of providing an overview of the principal processes and technologies for the use of crumb rubber in the asphalt mixture Published 2019


Development of Functional Rubber-Based Impact-Absorbing Pavements for Cyclist and Pedestrian Injury Reduction

The development of the rubber-based impact-absorbing pavements (IAP) offers a possibility to rethink the design of urban pavements and address safety on roads, which constitutes a major challenge in terms of attaining more sustainable, resilient, and safe cities for cyclists and pedestrians. Published October 2021


Economic and environmental analysis of crumb rubber modified asphalt

Life cycle analysis of the service life of Tyre modified asphalt compared to standard pavement with asphalt concrete, asphalt concrete for very thin layers or stone mastic asphalt wearing course to be more sustainable in some or all sustainability parameters. Published April 2022


Effect of Crumb Rubber as Coarse and Fine Aggregates on the Properties of Asphalt Concrete

This research has used crumb rubber in asphalt mixture as a part of the coarse and fine aggregate. The methodology involves the selection of the asphalt content and the percentage of rubber, which satisfies some property values (stability, range of flow, density, air void, VMA) according to many tests and some equations. Published June 2016


Functionalization of Crumb Rubber Surface for the Incorporation into Asphalt Layers of Reduced Stiffness

This review focuses on using physical surface treatment to modify the rubber surface characteristics for the use of abundant Crumb Rubber generated from End of Life Tyres in pavement engineering applications. Published March 2021


Impact of Chemically Treated Waste Rubber Tire Aggregates on Mechanical, Durability and Thermal Properties of Concrete

In this work, the influence of chemical treatment of rubber aggregates using sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH) and calcium hypochlorite solution [Ca(ClO)2] on fresh, mechanical, and transport properties of concrete have been studied. Published April 2020


Life Cycle Assessment of Sustainable Asphalt Pavement Solutions Involving Recycled Aggregates and Polymers

The synergistic effects of several innovative and traditional asphalt mixtures for binder and base layers of asphalt pavements were analyzed from both the technical and environmental points of view. Published July 2021


Life cycle assessment of two end-of-life tyre applications: artificial turfs and asphalt rubber

The use of end-of-life tyres is studied in two different applications in this life cycle assessment: as an infill layer on artificial football fields and as a binder additive in asphalt rubber pavements. Published October 2018


Recycled Rubber as an Aggregate Replacement in Self-Compacting Concrete—Literature Overview

An overview of fresh and hardened properties of self-compacting concrete with partially replaced fine and/or coarse aggregate with waste tire rubber. Published September 2018


Recycling Crumb Rubber Modified Asphalt Pavements

As a recycled material the performance of reclaimed asphalt rubber pavement (RAP) and the environmental impact thereof is the focus of this study. Published July 1995


Recycling Tire Rubber in Asphalt Pavements: State of the Art

Information on asphalt mixtures using waste tire rubber additions as a low-cost and environmentally friendly modifier and how it improved the overall properties of asphalt pavements. Published October 2020


The Impact of adding waste tire rubber on asphalt mix design

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of using the rubber of waste tires in asphalt mix design Edited December 2020


The Use of Recycled Tire Rubber to Modify Asphalt Binder and Mixtures

This Technical Brief provides an overview of the various processes for recycled tire rubber used as a modifier for asphalt binders and as an additive for asphalt mixtures Published September 2014


Transfer of Crumb Rubber Modified Asphalt and Sealing Technology, Queensland

The primary aim of this project was to facilitate the increased use of Crumb Rubber Modifier binders on the Queensland road network Published November 2017


Use of Tire Derived Products in Roadway Construction

The potential uses discussed herein include Tyre Derived Aggregate as lightweight fill, retaining wall backfill, insulation layer, drainage layer, and capillary moisture break Published July 2013


Tyre Processing

Our role is to deliver sustainable solutions for end of life tyres (ELT).

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Collection of passenger car tyres and motorcycle tyres, which have been accounted for in the scheme, is free to Members.

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Farm Tyres

Please complete this online registration form and a member of the Circol ELT team will contact you when we process your application.

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